- tamarind (tamarindus indica) is a leguminous tree bearing edible fruit that is indigenous to tropical africa. The genus tamarindus is monotypic, meaning that it contains only this species.
- the tamarind tree produces brown, pod-like fruits that contain a sweet, tangy pulp, which is used in cuisines around the world. The pulp is also used in traditional medicine and as a metal polish. The tree's wood can be used for woodworking and tamarind seed oil can be extracted from the seeds. Tamarind's tender young leaves are used in indian cuisine. Because tamarind has multiple uses, it is cultivated around the world in tropical and subtropical zones.
- the tamarind is a long-lived, medium-growth tree, which attains a maximum crown height of 12 to 18 metres (39 to 59 ft). The crown has an irregular, vase-shaped outline of dense foliage. The tree grows well in full sun. It prefers clay, loam, sandy, and acidic soil types, with a high resistance to drought and aerosol salt (wind-borne salt as found in coastal areas).
- the evergreen leaves are alternately arranged and pinnately lobed. The leaflets are bright green, elliptic-ovular, pinnately veined, and less than 5 cm (2.0 in) in length. The branches droop from a single, central trunk as the tree matures, and are often pruned in agriculture to optimize tree density and ease of fruit harvest. At night, the leaflets close up.
- as a tropical species, it is frost-sensitive. The pinnate leaves with opposite leaflets give a billowing effect in the wind. Tamarind timber consists of hard, dark red heartwood and softer, yellowish sapwood.
soil and climate
grown on variety of soils ranging from poor degraded, eroded, gravelly, saline and alkaline soils. Productivity is higher in red loamy, deep well drained soils. The absolute maximum temperature varies from 36-47.50 c and the absolute minimum temperature varies from 0-17.50 c. Rainfall requirement – 750-1900 mm. Altitude – up to 100 m above msl.
seeds / grafts
nursery: fresh seeds are sown in nursery beds in march – april. Soaking of seeds in 10 per cent cow urine or in cow dung solution (500 g in 10 l of water) for 24 hours. Two year old seedlings are transplanted to the main field.
- softwood grafting: march- april
- air layering: shoots treated with iba 4000 ppm.
8-10m x 8-10m is adopted.
the grafts should be planted in the pits of 1 m x 1 m x 1 m filled with fym and top soil. add 50 g of methyl parathion 1.3% dust in the pit. Immediately after planting, support the graft with stakes.
- pkm 1
- tumkur prathisthan,
- dts 1,
early training is necessary to form a high head and uniform scaffold branches in all directions.
removal of dried, diseased and criss cross branches.
- leaf caterpillar (achaea janata)
- leaf caterpillar can be controlled by spraying quinalphos 25 ec 2 ml/lit or monocrotophos 36 wsc 2 ml/lit.
regular watering should be given once in seven days.
apply 200:150:250 g of npk per tree per year along with 25 kg of fym and 2 kg of neem cake.
- remove the rootstock sprouts.
- remove the dried and diseased parts.
- intercrops like leguminous crops, short duration vegetables, annual drumstick, sesamum and sorghum