Latest Products Latest Products Thu, 22 Apr 2021 03:59:13 +0530 en-us Agro Products Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Dry Fuits Agro Products Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Indian Spices Agro Products Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Fresh Vegetables Agro Products Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Indian Rice Agro Products Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Packaging Bags Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Medical Safety Products Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Non Basmati Rice Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 description : rice other than basmati rice is called non- basmati rice. .. In fact, basmati rice equals to only 1% production of the total rice grown in india. Non- basmati rice comes in all kinds of different shapes and sizes. Some are long and slender, some are short and thick, some are like beads, and some may be round.varieties : pr 11 non basamati rice pr 14 non basamati rice parmal non basamati rice sona basamati rice bpt 5204 telangana sona hmt sona jai sriram ganga kaveri mtu 1010 ir 64 knm 118 jagtial rice jgl 24423 bathukamma jgl 18047 indra mtu 1061 Fresh Tamarind Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 description : tamarind (tamarindus indica) is a leguminous tree bearing edible fruit that is indigenous to tropical africa. The genus tamarindus is monotypic, meaning that it contains only this species. the tamarind tree produces brown, pod-like fruits that contain a sweet, tangy pulp, which is used in cuisines around the world. The pulp is also used in traditional medicine and as a metal polish. The tree's wood can be used for woodworking and tamarind seed oil can be extracted from the seeds. Tamarind's tender young leaves are used in indian cuisine. Because tamarind has multiple uses, it is cultivated around the world in tropical and subtropical zones. the tamarind is a long-lived, medium-growth tree, which attains a maximum crown height of 12 to 18 metres (39 to 59 ft). The crown has an irregular, vase-shaped outline of dense foliage. The tree grows well in full sun. It prefers clay, loam, sandy, and acidic soil types, with a high resistance to drought and aerosol salt (wind-borne salt as found in coastal areas). the evergreen leaves are alternately arranged and pinnately lobed. The leaflets are bright green, elliptic-ovular, pinnately veined, and less than 5 cm (2.0 in) in length. The branches droop from a single, central trunk as the tree matures, and are often pruned in agriculture to optimize tree density and ease of fruit harvest. At night, the leaflets close up. as a tropical species, it is frost-sensitive. The pinnate leaves with opposite leaflets give a billowing effect in the wind. Tamarind timber consists of hard, dark red heartwood and softer, yellowish sapwood. soil and climategrown on variety of soils ranging from poor degraded, eroded, gravelly, saline and alkaline soils. Productivity is higher in red loamy, deep well drained soils. The absolute maximum temperature varies from 36-47.50 c and the absolute minimum temperature varies from 0-17.50 c. Rainfall requirement – 750-1900 mm. Altitude – up to 100 m above msl.propagationseeds / graftsnursery: fresh seeds are sown in nursery beds in march – april. Soaking of seeds in 10 per cent cow urine or in cow dung solution (500 g in 10 l of water) for 24 hours. Two year old seedlings are transplanted to the main field.vegetative propagation softwood grafting: march- april air layering: shoots treated with iba 4000 ppm. spacing8-10m x 8-10m is adopted.plantingthe grafts should be planted in the pits of 1 m x 1 m x 1 m filled with fym and top soil.  add 50 g of methyl parathion 1.3% dust in the pit. Immediately after planting, support the graft with stakes.varieties : pkm 1 urigam hasanur, tumkur prathisthan, dts 1, yogeshwari. management :trainingearly training is necessary to form a high head and uniform scaffold branches in all directions.pruningremoval of dried, diseased and criss cross branches.plant protection pests leaf caterpillar (achaea janata) leaf caterpillar can be controlled by spraying quinalphos 25 ec 2 ml/lit or monocrotophos 36 wsc 2 ml/lit. irrigation :regular watering should be given once in seven days.fertilizersapply 200:150:250 g of npk per tree per year along with 25 kg of fym and 2 kg of neem cake.aftercultivation remove the rootstock sprouts. remove the dried and diseased parts. intercrops like leguminous crops, short duration vegetables, annual drumstick, sesamum and sorghum Coriander Seeds Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 description : coriander is a spice produced from the round, tan-colored seeds of the coriander plant (coriandrum sativum), which is a member of the parsley family. the word coriander can be used to describe the entire plant: leaves, stems, seeds, and all. health benefits coriander has been used in traditional medicine for stomach ailments. it is sometimes included in teas that are designed to help relieve constipation. research is being done to see if it has any verified health benefits for conditions such as diabetes. fresh cilantro greens provide fiber and phytonutrients, while the seeds have a small amount of calcium, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus. coriander is an annual herb in the family apiaceae. it is also known as chinese parsley or dhania, and in the united states the stems and leaves are usually called cilantro. all parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the parts most traditionally used in cooking. seed treatment: soak the seeds in water for 12 hours. treat the seeds with azospirillum @ 1.5 kg /ha for better crop establishment + trichoderma viride @ 50 kg/ha to control wilt disease. pre sowing seed hardening treatment with potassium dihydrogen phosphate @ 10 g/lit of water for 16 hours is to be done for rainfed crop. field preparation and sowing: prepare the main field to a fine tilth. add fym 10 t/ha before last ploughing. form beds and channels (for irrigated crop). show the split seeds at a spacing of 20 x 15 cm. spray pre-emergence herbicide fluchloralin 700 ml in 500 lit of water per ha . the seeds will germinate in about 8-15 days. plant protection:aphidaphids can be controlled by spraying methyl demeton 20 ec @ 2 ml/lit or dimethoate 30 ec @ 2 ml/lit.diseases:powdery mildew:seed treatment with pseudomonas fluorescens (pf 1) @ 10 g /kg and foliar spray of pf1 2 g/lit or spray wettable sulphur 1 kg/ha or dinocap 250 ml/ha at the time of initial appearance of the disease and 2nd spray at 10 days interval. neem seed kernel extracts 5 % spray thrice (1st spray immediately after the appearance of disease, 2nd and 3rd at 10 days interval).varieties : co1 co2 co3 cs287 karan cimpos-33 cs-2 co(cr)4 gau1 ud1 ud2 ud20 ud21 managementit is a tropical crop and can be grown throughout the year (except very hot season i.e. march-may) for leaf purpose, but for higher grain yield it has to be grown in specific season. a dry and cold weather free from frost especially during flowering and fruit setting stage favours good grain production. cloudy weather during flowering and fruiting stage favours pest and disease incidences. heavy rain affects the crop. as an irrigated crop, it can be cultivated on almost all types of soils provided sufficient organic matter is applied. black cotton soils with high retentivity of moisture is best under rainfed conditions.irrigation/cultivationfirst irrigation is given 3 days after sowing and thereafter at 10 to 15 days interval depending upon the soil moisture available in the soil. Turmeric Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Description : Turmeric is a spice which can enhance the tint of any Dish. It has been used in India for over thousands of years as a spice and also as a medicinal herb. The world of science has recently concluded the efficacy of turmeric which we Indian have known for a long time. Turmeric has been used in Asia for over thousands of years and is a major part of Ayurveda, Siddha medicine, traditional Chinese medicine  and the animistic rituals of Austronesian peoples. It was first used as a dye , and then later for its supposed properties in folk medicine.Varieties : Co 1 BSR 1 Roma Swarna Sudarshana Suguna Sugandham BSR 2 Ranga Rashmi Rajendra Sonia Krishna Suroma Allepy finger turmeric (AFT) IISR Prabha IISR Prathiba IISR Alleppey Supreme IISR Kedaram. ManagementPlant protectionPre planting treatmentThe seed rhizomes are dipped in Carbendazim 1 g/lit and Phosalone 35 EC 2 ml/lit for controlling rhizome rot and scales.PestsThripsThrips can be controlled by spraying Dimethoate 30 EC or Methyl demeton 25 EC 2 ml/litre.Rhizome scaleRhizome scale can be controlled by applying well rotten sheep manure @ 10 t/ha in two splits (once basally and other at earthing up) or Poultry manure in 2 splits followed by drenching Dimethoate 30 EC 2 ml/lit or Phosalone 35 EC 2 ml/lit.NematodeAvoid planting turmeric after Banana or other solanaceous vegetables.  Plant only after taking suitable control measures. Apply Carbofuran 4 kg a.i./ha twice on the third and fifth month after planting the rhizomes.Irrigation/CultivationIntercultivationOnion, Coriander and Fenugreek can be planted as intercrop on the sides of the ridges 10 cm apart (250 kg seed Onion/ha). Redgram and Castor can also be planted at wider spacing. Weeding can be done as and when necessary. The plants are earthed up at the time of 2nd and 4th top dressings. Green Cardamom Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Description : Cardamom is widely known as the ‘queen of spices’ & has major health benefits. It’s aroma has an undeniably soothing effect. Cardamom helps ease the indigestion and maintains an optimal gastrointestinal balance. It promotes clear breathing and better respiratory health, it ultimately eases the symptoms of asthma and also consists of anti depressant qualities.Cardamom is a spice native to Asia, particularly India, Nepal & Bhutan.Not to forget about the delicious ‘cardamom tea’ which most Indians can not go by a day without having.Varieties : Malabar : Mudigree 1 Mudigree 2 PV 1 ICRI 1 ICRI 3 TKD 4 IISR Suvarna IISR Vijetha IISR Avinash Mysore : ICRI 2 Vazhukka : PV2 Njallani (Green gold). ManagementDiseasesMosaic or Katte disease This is a serious disease affecting the productivity of Cardamom. This is transmitted by banana aphid which can be controlled by regular spraying with Methyl demeton 25 EC or Dimethoate 30 EC or Phosphomidon 86 WSC at 750 ml/ha. Damping off or clump rot or rhizome rotDrench nursery with 1 lit of Formaldehyde in 50 lit water for 3 sq.m. before sowing. Prophylactic drench with 0.25% Mancozeb or 1% Bordeaux mixture immediately after germination to control Pythium and 0.05% Carbendazim after 15 days to control Rhizoctonia.Capsule rot or panicle rot or AzhukalThree sprays with 1% Bordeaux mixture or 0.25% Copper oxychloride or 0.2% Mancozeb just before onset of South West monsoon in early August and in September. Drench the soil with 1% Bordeaux mixture.HarvestHarvesting commences from the third year onwards. But good yields are expected from 5th year. Harvesting is generally done once in a month. Pick only those fruits which are just ripe but not fully ripe. Fully ripe fruits tend to split on drying and do not develop the desirable dark green colour.Irrigation/CultivationIrrigationGenerally Cardamom is grown as a rainfed crop, but provide sprinkler irrigation during summer for increased yields.It is cultivated in Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. India is the second largest producer of small cardamom.In organic cultivation of cardamom, the methods to be followed should conform to the standards laid down for the purpose. An isolation belt of at least 25 m wide is to be left from all around the conventional plantation. The produce from this area shall not be treated as organic. A conversion period of three years is required for an existing plantation for organic cultivation. Fresh Ginger Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Description : Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant, ginger root or ginger, is widely used as a spice and a folk medicine. It is a herbaceous perennial which grows annual pseudostems (false stems made of the rolled bases of leaves) about one meter tall bearing narrow leaf blades. The inflorescences bear flowers having pale yellow petals with purple edges, and arise directly from the rhizome on separate shoots.Ginger is in the family Zingiberaceae, which also includes turmeric (Curcuma longa), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), and galangal. Ginger originated in Island Southeast Asia and was likely domesticated first by the Austronesian peoples. It was transported with them throughout the Indo-Pacific during the Austronesian expansion (c. 5,000 BP), reaching as far as Hawaii. Ginger is one of the first spices to have been exported from Asia, arriving in Europe with the spice trade, and was used by ancient Greeks and Romans. The distantly related dicots in the genus Asarum are commonly called wild ginger because of their similar taste. In 2018, world production of ginger was 2.8 million tonnes, led by India with 32% of the world total.Ginger Production Technology :Vintage people of India 'makaolacata" articulated by the world's leading medical substances Ginger is used in Chinese and Japanese people for a long history of medical substances containing aromatic substance. To this day, the traditional medical systems in the world occur during pregnancy, vomiting, dizziness and cold is used as the primary clinical. Medicinal ginger rich, the people of India, China and Japan in the cooking methods ginger is essential. Thus, all hot and temperate regions of the world in medical popular ginger have been widely cultivated. South East Asian Countries are the origin of Ginger. From India and China, the crop spread to other countries. Currently, Ginger cultivated in countries like India, China, Jamaica, Taiwan, Fiji, Mauritius, Brazil, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Bangladesh. It is in the Gingiferae plant family and 'Gingifer officinali is the botanical name. The Latin name of the genus cinjiper was derived from the Tamil word injiver. The name Ginger spread by Arab traders to the Greek and Roman developed countries.Varieties : Rio de Janeiro  Maran Nadan Suruchi, Suravi Suprabha Himagiri IISR Varada IISR Mahima IISR Rejatha Athira Karthika ManagementPlant protection :PestsShoot borerShoot borer can be controlled by spraying Dimethoate 30 EC 2 ml/lit or Phosphamidon 86 WSC 1 ml/lit.Leaf rollerLeaf roller can be controlled by spraying Carbaryl 50 WP 2 g/ha or Quinalphos 25 EC 2 ml/lit.DiseasesSoft rot (Pythium sp.)  Mulching is done at the time of planting with green leaves. After each top dressing, earth up the plants. Dried Bay Leaves Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Description : Bay leaves come from several plants, such as : Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae). Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavour and fragrance. The leaves should be removed from the cooked food before eating (see Safety section below). The leaves are often used to flavour soups, stews, braises and pâtés in many countries. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavour until several weeks after picking and drying. California bay leaf – the leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica, Lauraceae), also known as California laurel, Oregon myrtle, and pepperwood, is similar to the Mediterranean bay laurel, but has a stronger flavour. Indian bay leaf or malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala, Lauraceae) differs in that bay laurel leaves are shorter and light to medium green in colour, with one large vein down the length of the leaf, while tejpat (Cinnamonum tamala) leaves are about twice as long and wider, usually olive green in colour, and with three veins down the length of the leaf and is culinarily quite different, having a fragrance and taste similar to cinnamon (cassia) bark, but milder. Indonesian bay leaf or Indonesian laurel (salam leaf, Syzygium polyanthum, Myrtaceae) is not commonly found outside Indonesia; this herb is applied to meat and, less often, to vegetables. West Indian bay leaf, the leaf of the West Indian bay tree (Pimenta racemosa, Myrtaceae), used culinarily (especially in Caribbean cuisine) and to produce the cologne called bay rum. Mexican bay leaf (Litsea glaucescens, Lauraceae). Chemical constituents :The leaves contain about 1.3% essential oils (ol. lauri folii), consisting of 45% eucalyptol, 12% other terpenes, 8-12% terpinyl acetate, 3–4% sesquiterpenes, 3% methyleugenol, and other α- and β-pinenes, phellandrene, linalool, geraniol, terpineol, and contain lauric acid also.Taste and aroma:If eaten whole, bay leaves (Laurus nobilis) are pungent and have a sharp, bitter taste. As with many spices and flavourings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is more noticeable than its taste. When dried, the fragrance is herbal, slightly floral, and somewhat similar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene, which is a component of many essential oils used in perfumery, can be extracted from the bay leaf. Uses: In Indian cuisine, bay laurel leaves are sometimes used in place of Indian bay leaf, although they have a different flavour. They are most often used in rice dishes like biryani and as an ingredient in garam masala. Bay (laurel) leaves are frequently packaged as tejpatt? The Hindi term for Indian bay leaf), creating confusion between the two herbs. In the Philippines, dried bay laurel leaves are used in several Filipino dishes such as menudo, beef pares, and adobo. Bay leaves can also be crushed or ground before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart more fragrance than whole leaves, but are more difficult to remove, and thus they are often used in a muslin bag or tea infuser. Ground bay laurel may be substituted for whole leaves, and does not need to be removed, but it is much stronger. Bay leaves are also used in the making of jerk chicken in the Caribbean Islands. The bay leaves are soaked and placed on the cool side of the grill. Pimento sticks are placed on top of the leaves and the chicken is placed on top and smoked. The leaves are also added whole to soups, stews, and other Caribbean dishes. Varieties :Indian Cassia also known as Tejpat (Cinnamomum Tamala) is a small to moderately sized ever green tree. The leaves of this tree is the spice having clove like taste and a faintly pepper like odour. The tree has height up to 7.5 mtr with zigzag branching, trunk up to 95 cm girth, bark rough, dark grey to reddish brown in colourManagementTo start with, nurseries were raised through grafting method in convergence with Horticulture department. 32 SHGs were selected for raising nurseries.It is estimated that after the end of the third year the farmers will earn about Rs. 500.00 per plant per year and after 6 years the farmers will earn around Rs. 1,000.00 per plant per year. In the meantime, the farmers have also been encouraged to resort to intercropping. Vegetables or pulse can be practised for inter-cropping for initial 1 to 2 years and later any shade loving crop can be cultivated. It is hoped that the farmers will get financial security by growing bay leaf.Irrigation/CultivationThese trees require full sunlight. They grow well in warm and moist climates. Bay leaves grow well in fertile, well drained soils with good organic matter.They thrive best in the soils with PH of 6.0 to 8.0. Dried Red Chilli Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Description : Chili (also spelled chile, chilli, or, alternatively, powdered chili) is the dried, pulverized fruit of one or more varieties of chili pepper, sometimes with the addition of other spices (where it is also sometimes known as chili powder blend or chili seasoning mix).It is used as a spice (or spice blend) to add pungency (piquancy) and flavor to culinary dishes. In American English, the spelling is usually "chili"; in British English, "chilli" (with two "l"s) is used consistently. Chili powder is used in many different cuisines, including American (particularly Tex-Mex), Chinese, Indian, Korean, Mexican, Portuguese, and Thai. A chili powder blend is the primary flavor in American chili con carne. Soil : Well drained loamy soils rich in organic matter with pH range 6.5-7.5.Seed rate Varieties: 1.0 kg / ha. Hybrids: 200 - 250 g / ha. Nursery area: 100 sq.m / ha. Seed treatmentTreat the seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g / kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/ kg and sow in lines spaced at 10 cm in raised nursery beds and cover with sand. Watering with rose can has to be done daily. Drench the nursery with Copper oxychloride @ 2.5 g/l of water at 15 days interval against damping off disease. Apply Carbofuran 3 G at 10 g/sq.m. at sowing.Protected nursery Prepare the nursery area of 3 cents with slanting slope of 2 % for the seedling production to cover 1 ha. Cover the nursery area with 50 % shade net and cover the sides using 40 / 50 mesh insect proof nylon net. Form raised beds of 1 m width and convenient length and place HDPV pipes at 2m interval for further protection with polythene sheets during rainy months. Mix sterilized cocopeat @ 300 kg with 5 kg neem cake along with Azospirillum and phosphobacteria each @ 1 kg. Approximately 1.2 kg of cocopeat is required for filling one protay. 300 protrays (98 cells) are required for the production of 29,000 seedlings, which are required for one hectare adopting a spacing of 90 x 60 x 45 cm in a paired row system. Sow the treated seed in protrays @ 1 seed per cell. Cover the seed with cocopeat and keep the trays one above the other and cover with a polythene sheet till germination starts. After 6 days place the protrays with germinated seedlings individually on the raised beds inside the shade net. Water with rose can everyday upto seed germination. Drench with 19:19:19 @ 0.5% (5g/l) at 18 days after sowing. Field preparationThoroughly prepare the field with the addition of FYM @ 25 t/ ha and form ridges and furrows at a spacing of 60 cm. Apply 2 kg/ha of Azospirillum and 2 kg / ha of Phosphobacteria by mixing with 20 kg of FYM. Irrigate the furrows and transplant 40-45 days old seedlings, with the ball of earth on the ridges.Weed controlApply Pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i. / ha or Fluchloralin 1.0 kg a.i. / ha as pre-emergece herbicide followed by hand weeding once 30 days after planting.Varieties : BIRDS EYE CHILLI(DHANI) Grown in Mizoram & some areas of Manipur Blood red in colour,highly pungent Harvesting season-October to December Available in Calcutta market ASTA colour value-41.7 Capsaicine-0.589%  BYADAGI(KADDI) Grown in Dharwar Karnataka Red in colour with less pungency or without pungency Harvesting season-January to May Annual Production-21,000 tonnes Available in Hubli-Dharwad markets ASTA colour value-159.9 Capsaicine-Negligible ELLACHIPUR SANNAM-S4 TYPE Grown in Amaravathi District of Maharashtra Reddish in colour and very hot Annual Production - 1800 tonnes Harvesting season-September to December Available in Bombay,Delhi,Ahemedabad and Nagpur ASTA colour value - 70.40 Capsaicine-0.2% GUNTUR SANNAM-S4 TYPE Grown in Guntur,Warangal,Khammam Districts of Andhra Pradesh Skin thick,hot and red Harvesting season - December to May Annual Production - 2,80,000 tonnes Available in Guntur market ASTA colour value- 32.11 Capsaicine-0.226% HINDPUR-S7 Grown in Hindpur in Andhra Pradesh Red in colour,hot and highly pungent Harvesting season- December to March Available in Hindpur Capsaicine-0.24 ASTA colour value- 33.00 JWALA Grown in Kheda, Mehsana & in South Gujarat Highly pungent, light red in colour,short and the seeds are compact Harvesting season-September to December Available in Unjha market Capsaicine-0.4% KANTHARI-WHITE Grown in Kerala & some parts of Tamil Nadu Short and ivory white in colour with high pungency Mainly grown as a homestead crop Available in the markets throughout the year ASTA colour value- 2.96 Capsaicine-0.504% KASHMIR CHILLI Grown in temperate regions such as Himachal Pradesh,Jammu & Kashmir and also in sub-tropical regions of North India during winter season Long,fleshy,deep red in colour Harvesting season- November to February Available in major markets of North India ASTA colour value- 54.10 Capsaicine-0.325% MADHYA PRADESH G.T.SANNAM Grown in Indore, Malkapur Chikli and Elachpur areas of Madhya Pradesh Red in colour and pungent Harvesting season-January to March Annual Production - 7500 tonnes Available in major markets of Madhya Pradesh. ManagementSpacing Varieties : 60 x 45 cm Hybrids : 75 x 60 cm ManuringVarieties Basal dose : FYM 25 t/ha, NPK 30:60:30 kg/ ha. Potassium as K2SO4 for quality improvement. Application of potassium in the form of  potassium sulphate will increase quality of chilli. Irrigation/CultivationIrrigation Irrigate is done at weekly intervals. Layout and planting for drip irrigation and fertigation Apply FYM @ 25 t / ha as basal before last ploughing. Apply 2 kg / ha of Azospirillum and 2 kg/ha Phosphobacteria by mixing with 20 kg of FYM. Apply 75 % total recommended dose of superphosphate i.e. 375 kg / ha as basal. Install the drip irrigation with main and sub main pipes and place lateral tubes Cumin Seeds Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Description : It is popularly known as zeera or safaid zeera. Cumin constitutes a principal condiment crop owing to its strong aromatic odour and a spicy taste. It is regarded as one of the oldest spices known since Biblical times. It is used as flavouring compound in variety of culinary preparations. The short duration of growing and high net returns are added attributes behind the preference and popularity of the crops among the farmers.   ManagementIt can be successfully cultivated on well drained medium to heavy textured soil of average to high fertility. The crop thrives well on deep, friable, medium and well drained soil in mild climate. However, continuous cropping of cumin in the same field is not desirable because of the problem of soil borne diseases particularly wilt.   Irrigation/CultivationLight irrigation should be given immediately after sowing followed by another irrigation after 8-10 days. Germination will starts only after second irrigation. The first irrigation should not be heavy; otherwise it results in uneven distribution of plants. However if the day temperature is high with dry spell, a third irrigation may be given after 4-5 days to allow completion of germination. There after the crop should be irrigated at an interval of 20-30 days depending upon the weather condition and soil type. Black Pepper Seeds Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Description : Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, known as a peppercorn, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. When fresh and fully mature, the fruit is about 5 mm (0.20 in) in diameter and dark red, and contains a single seed, like all drupes. Peppercorns and the ground pepper derived from them may be described simply as pepper, or more precisely as black pepper (cooked and dried unripe fruit), green pepper (dried unripe fruit), or white pepper (ripe fruit seeds). Black pepper is native to present-day Kerala in South India, and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper, producing 34% of the world's crop, as of 2013. Ground, dried and cooked peppercorns have been used since antiquity, both for flavour and as a traditional medicine. Black pepper is the world's most traded spice, and is one of the most common spices added to cuisines around the world. Its spiciness is due to the chemical compound piperine, which is a different kind of spicy from the capsaicin characteristic of chili peppers. It is ubiquitous in the modern world as a seasoning, and is often paired with salt and available on dining tables in shakers or mills. Production of rooted cuttingsTraditional methodRunner shoots from high yielding and healthy vines are kept coiled on wooden pegs fixed at the base of the vine to prevent the shoots from coming in contact with soil and striking roots. The runner shoots are separated from the vine during February-March and after trimming the leaves, cuttings of 2-3 nodes each are planted either in nursery beds or in polythene bags filled with fertile soil. Adequate shade has to be provided and the polythene bags are to be irrigated frequently. The cuttings become ready for planting during May - June.Rapid multiplication method An efficient propagation technique developed at Sri Lanka has been modified for adoption in India for quick and easy multiplication of black pepper vines. In this method, a trench of 45 cm depth, 30 cm width and convenient length is made. The trench is filled with rooting medium comprising of forest soil, sand and farm yard manure in 1:1:1 ratio. Split halves of bamboo with septa or split halves of PVC pipes of 1.25-1.50 meter length and 8-10 cm diameter provided with plastic septa at 30 cm intervals are fixed at 45∞ angle on a strong support. Rooted cuttings are planted in the trench at the rate of one cutting for each bamboo split. The lower portions of the bamboo splits are filled with rooting medium (preferably weathered coir dust-farm yard manure mixture in 1:1 ratio) and the growing vine is tied to the bamboo split in such a way so as to keep the nodes pressed to the rooting medium. The tying can be done with dried banana leaf sheath fibers or coir rope. The cuttings are irrigated regularly. As the cuttings grow, the bamboo splits are filled with rooting medium and each node is pressed down to the rooting medium and tied. For rapid growth, a nutrient solution of urea (1 kg), super phosphate (0.75 kg), muriate of potash (0.5 kg) and magnesium sulphate (0.25 kg) in 250 litres of water is to be applied @ 0.25 litre per vine at monthly intervals. When the vine reaches the top (3-4 months after planting of the cutting) the terminal bud is nipped off and the vine is crushed at about three nodes above the base, in order to activate the axillary buds. After about 10 days, the vine is cut at the crushed point and removed from the rooting medium and cut between each node. Each cutting with the bunch of roots intact is planted in polythene bags filled with fumigated potting mixture. Trichoderma @ one gram and VAM @ 100 cc/kg of soil can be added to the potting mixture. Care should be taken to keep the leaf axil above the soil. The polythenebags should be kept in a cool and humid place, or should be covered with thin polythene (200 gauge) sheet to retain humidity. The buds start developing in about 3 weeks and the polybags can then be removed and kept in shade. The advantages of this method of propagation are rapid multiplication (1:40), well developed root system, higher field establishment and vigorous growth as a result of better root system. Trench method A simple, cheap and efficient technique for propagating black pepper from single nodes of runner shoots taken from field grown vines has been developed at the institute. A pit of 2.0 meter x 1.0 meter x 0.5 meter size is dug under a cool and shaded area. Single nodes of 8-10 cm length and with their leaf intact, taken from runner shoots of field grown vines are planted in polythene bags (25 cm x 15 cm, 200 gauge) filled at the lower half with a mixture of sand, soil, coir dust and cow dung in equal proportion. The single nodes are to be planted in the bags in such a way that their leaf axil is above the potting mixture. The polythene bags with the planted single nodes are arranged in the pit. After keeping the bags in the pit, the pit should be covered with a polythene sheet. This sheet may be secured in position by placing weights on the corners. The cuttings should be watered at least five times a day with a rose can and the pit should be covered with the polythene sheet immediately after watering. It is advisable to drench the cuttings two-three times with copper oxychloride (2g/litre). After two-three weeks of planting, the cuttings will start producing roots which are visible through the polythene bags. After the initiation of roots the frequency of watering may be reduced to three-four times a day. After about one month, new shoots start emerging from the leaf axil. At this stage it is advisable to keep the pit open for about one hour per day so that the cuttings would harden and will not dry when they are taken out of the pit. The cuttings can be taken out of the pit after two months of planting and kept in a shaded place and watered twice a day. These cuttings will be ready for field planting after about 2? months. By this method 80-85 per cent success can be obtained. Foliar application of nutrient solution will also enhance the growth of the cuttings. Serpentine methodCheaper propagation technique for production of rooted cuttings of black pepper is serpentine layering. In a nursery shed with roofing sheet or shade net, rooted black pepper cuttings are planted in polythene bags holding about 500 g potting mixture, which will serve as mother plants. As the plant grows and produces few nodes small polythene bags (20 x 10 cm) filled with potting mixture may be kept under each node. The node may be kept gently pressed in to the mixture assuring contact with the potting mixture with the help of a flexible twig such as mid rib of a coconut leaflet to enable rooting at that junction. Roots start growing from the nodes and the cuttings keep on growing further. The process of keeping potting mixture filled polythene bags at every node to induce rooting at each node is repeated. In three months the first 10 to 12 nodes (from the mother plants) would have rooted profusely and will be ready for harvest. Each node with the polythene bag is cut just below the rooted node and the cut end is also buried into the mixture to induce more roots. Polythene bags filled with solarized potting mixture or soil, granite powder and farmyard manure in 2:1:1 proportion is recommended for producing disease free rooted cuttings. The rooted nodes will produce new sprouts in a week time and will be ready for field planting in two-three months time. Daily irrigation can be given with a rose can. On an average, 60 cuttings can be harvested per mother plant in a year by this method.Varieties : Panniyur 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 Karimunda Sreekara Subhakara Panchami Pournami IISR Thevam IISR Malabar Excel IISR Girimunda IISR Sakthi PLD-2. ManagementPlantingSlopes facing West and South should be avoided.  Pits of 50 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm size are dug at a spacing of 2 to 3 m in either direction (Panniyur 1 - 3 x 3 m).  5 to 10 kg of FYM/Compost is mixed with top soil and the pits are filled.  Rooted cuttings are planted in June - July @ two per standard like Silver oak, Dadap and Jack.  In multitier cropping system, standards should be planted at a spacing of 7 – 8 m.Irrigation/CultivationPropagation Black pepper vines develop three types of aerial shoots, namely Primary stem with long internodes, with adventitious roots which cling to the standards Runner shoots which originate from the base of the vine and have long internodes which strike roots at each node and Fruit bearing lateral branches. Cuttings are raised mainly from runner shoots, though terminal shoots can also be used. Fenugreek Seeds Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Description : Fenugreek seed is a very hard seed that, when ground, adds a nutty flavor and hints of maple. Common in curries and flatbreads of India, and also a component of the Ethiopian spice mix Berbere, fenugreek can be toasted prior to use to enhance the nutty flavor and aroma of the seed. Oil: A rich well drained loamy soil is best suited for fenugreek cultivation. Climate: Cool and comparatively dry, frost free climate Seed rate: 12 kg/ha is required Seed treatment: Treated with Azospirillum 1.5 kg/ha + Trichoderma viride @ 50 g/ha for 12 kg of seeds Field preparation and sowing: Prepare the main field to a fine tilth. Add FYM 20 - 25 t/ha before last ploughing. Form beds and channels of 3.5 x 1.5 m. Seeds are sown at a spacing of 20 X 15 cm. Spray pre-emergence herbicide Fluchloralin 700 ml in 500 lit of water per ha. Manuring: Basal- FYM 20 - 25 t/ha and N, P, K at 30:25:40 kg/ha. Top dressing- 20 kg of N at 30 days after sowing. Varieties : Co1 Pusa early bunching Lam selection 1 Raajendra kranti etc. ManagementPlant protection :DiseasesRoot rot :Root rot can be controlled by soil application of Neem cake @ 150 g/ha and seed treatment with Trichoderma viride @ 4g/kg  of seed and drenching with Carbendazim 0.5 g/l or Copper oxychloride 2 g/litre.Irrigation/Cultivation Irrigation: First irrigation is given immediately after sowing, second on the third day and subsequently at 7 - 10 days intervals. Aftercultivation: Plants are thinned at 20 - 25 days after sowing and the thinned seedlings are used as greens. One pinching at a height of about 4” will encourage branching.Weeding is done as and when necessary. Mustard Seeds Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Description : Mustard seeds are the small round seeds of various mustard plants. The seeds are usually about 1 to 2 millimetres (0.039 to 0.079 in) in diameter and may be colored from yellowish white to black. They are an important spice in many regional foods and may come from one of three different plants: black mustard (Brassica nigra), brown Indian mustard  or white/yellow mustard. Grinding and mixing the seeds with water, vinegar or other liquids creates the yellow condiment known as prepared mustard. Varieties : Refined. Refined mustard oil is extracted by pressing mustard seeds. Grade I. Grade I Mustard Oil, more commonly known as Kachchi Ghani, is raw mustard oil in its purest form. ... Grade II. ManagementPropagationSeed 6 - 7 kg/haSpacing45 x 30 cm in bedsManureBasal: FYM 25 t N 25 kg, P 60 kg.  Top dressing: N 25 kgWeeding2 - 3 weedingCropping and harvestDuration: 3 - 4 months.  Plants pulled after pods turn brown, dried in the sun and threshed.Irrigation/CultivationCultivationMustard seeds generally take eight to ten days to germinate if placed under the proper conditions, which include a cold atmosphere and relatively moist soil. Mature mustard plants grow into shrubs.Mustard grows well in temperate regions. Major producers of mustard seeds include India, Pakistan, Canada, Nepal, Hungary, Great Britain and the United States. Brown and black mustard seeds return higher yields than their yellow counterparts. Sesame Seeds Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Description : Sesame is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne. Numerous wild relatives occur in Africa and a smaller number in India. It is widely naturalized in tropical regions around the world and is cultivated for its edible seeds, which grow in pods.CultivationSesame varieties have adapted to many soil types. The high-yielding crops thrive best on well-drained, fertile soils of medium texture and neutral pH. However, these have low tolerance for soils with high salt and water-logged conditions. Commercial sesame crops require 90 to 120 frost free days. Warm conditions above 23 °C (73 °F) favor growth and yields. While sesame crops can grow in poor soils, the best yields come from properly fertilized farm. Dried Cloves Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Description : Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum. They are native to the Maluku Islands (or Moluccas) in Indonesia, and are commonly used as a spice. Cloves are available throughout the year due to different harvest seasons in different countries.Botanical features:The clove tree is an evergreen that grows up to 8–12 metres (26–39 ft) tall, with large leaves and crimson flowers grouped in terminal clusters. The flower buds initially have a pale hue, gradually turn green, then transition to a bright red when ready for harvest. Cloves are harvested at 1.5–2 centimetres (0.59–0.79 in) long, and consist of a long calyx that terminates in four spreading sepals, and four unopened petals that form a small central ball.Soil and climate :Humid tropical climate with an annual rainfall of 150 - 250 cm and a mean temperature range of 20°C to 30°C and elevation up to 1000 m are suitable.  Deep rich loams with high humus content and laterite soils are the best suited for clove cultivation.   ManagementPlantingSeeds are extracted from ripe fruits and sown immediately. The seeds germinate in five to six weeks. Two year old seedlings are planted in pits of 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm size filled with soil and FYM 10 kg/pit at a spacing of 6 m either way. Apply 50 g/pit Azospirillum before planting.ManuringOne year old plants can be applied with FYM 15 kg, N 20 g, P 20 g, K 60 g in two splits during June - July and September Irrigation/CultivationAftercultivation Provide shade for seedlings. Mulch the basins with dried leaves. Weed the basins as and when necessary. Banana can be grown to provide shade during the initial establishment.  Small temporary pandals may provided for partial shade during initial establishment. IrrigationFrequent watering is essential in the initial stages in the absence of rains.  Irrigation should be given during summer months. Applying 8 litres Cinnamon Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Description : Cinnamon  is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon is used mainly as an aromatic condiment and flavouring additive in a wide variety of cuisines, sweet and savoury dishes, breakfast cereals, snackfoods, tea and traditional foods. The aroma and flavour of cinnamon derive from its essential oil and principal component, cinnamaldehyde, as well as numerous other constituents, including eugenol. The term "cinnamon" also is used to describe its mid-brown colour. Cinnamon is the name for several species of trees and the commercial spice products that some of them produce. All are members of the genus Cinnamomum in the family Lauraceae. Only a few Cinnamomum species are grown commercially for spice. Cinnamomum verum is sometimes considered to be "true cinnamon", but most cinnamon in international commerce is derived from the related species Cinnamomum cassia, also referred to as "cassia".In 2016, Indonesia and China produced 75% of the world's supply of cinnamon. Soil and climate : Sandy or lateritic soils with high humus are suitable. This crop can be grown up to an altitude of 800 - 1000 m from Mean Sea Level receiving an annual rainfall of 150 to 250 cm.Propagation: Seeds / Semi hardwood cuttingsNursery: Seeds collected from selected mother trees are sown immediately in nursery beds in rows of 12 cm apart. July – August is the best season for sowing. From beds, seedlings are transplanted to polythene bags when they attain a height of 15 cm.PlantingTake pits of 60 cm3 at 2 m x 2 m spacing. Fill the pits with top soil and FYM 10 kg. One year old seedlings or rooted cuttings are transplanted under partial shade.Varieties : YCD 1 PPI – 1 Nithyasree Navasree, Konkan Tej, Sugandhini. Management : Plant protection Pests Shoot borer : Shoot borer can be controlled by smearing the stem and branches with Carbaryl 50 WP @ 2 g/lit of water once in a month. Coffee red borer : Coffee red borer can be controlled by trunk injection of Monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 1 ml/bore hole with a waiting period of 20 days to be allowed between application and harvest of the bark. Leaf eating caterpillar IrrigationProtective watering during summer is beneficial.After CultivationImmediately after transplanting, the plants are provided with temporary shade by erecting a small pandal. Weeds are removed as and when necessary.  Young trees are cut close to the ground to produce side shoots. This process is called "Coppicing". By stooling around the stumps, more side shoots are encouraged from the base of the trees. Saffron Threads Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Description : Saffron by nature is low input demanding crop in terms of energy,water and nutrients. Its cultivation in Kashmir was introduced by Central Asian Immigrants.The Kashmiri Vaids namely Veghbhata and Sushtra used in Saffron as an important ingredient. Saffron is a cultural asset associated with a considerable amount of indigenous knowledge. Today, saffron is cultivated from the Western Mediterranean (Spain) to India (Kashmir). Spain and Iran are the largest producers, accounting together for more than 80% of the World’s production, which is approximately 300 tons per year. Varieties :Modern saffron is entirely hybrid and does not set seed at all—all propagation is vegetative. “Cultivars” are very rarely mentioned by home-garden seedsmen in connection with saffron, though there are certainly plenty enough out there; premier types from around the saffron-growing world include “Aquila” (Italy), “Mongra” aka “Lacha” (Kashmir—Crocus sativa Cashmirianus, said to be an especially fine producer in northern gardens), “Superior” and “Creme” (Spain), and “Pennsylvania Dutch” (U.S.—known for its “earthy” notes). No bulbs offered at retail in North America are (so far as we found) identified by cultivar, and are very unlikely to be any of those prized sorts.Management :Modern saffron is entirely hybrid and does not set seed at all—all propagation is vegetative. “Cultivars” are very rarely mentioned by home-garden seedsmen in connection with saffron, though there are certainly plenty enough out there; premier types from around the saffron-growing world include “Aquila” (Italy), “Mongra” aka “Lacha” (Kashmir—Crocus sativa Cashmirianus, said to be an especially fine producer in northern gardens), “Superior” and “Creme” (Spain), and “Pennsylvania Dutch” (U.S.—known for its “earthy” notes). No bulbs offered at retail in North America are (so far as we found) identified by cultivar, and are very unlikely to be any of those prized sorts.Irrigation/CultivationIrrigation for saffron cropIf there is light rain a few days after planting the crop, there is no need to irrigate the field. But if there is no rain then we have to irrigate 2 to 3 times in a span of 15 days. During irrigation, it should be kept in mind that there should be no water deposits in the field and if water deposits occur, drainage should be arranged soon. If not arranged, crop will be affected.Ideal Conditions for Saffron CultivationFor commercial saffron production the basic requirement is fertile soil. Climate is the second big factor. It demands a good photoperiod and a dry soil with light moisture.Climate for Saffron CultivationThe cultivation of saffron is mainly found in both sunken and dry areas with an elevation of 1500 to 2500 meters above sea level. It needs Photoperiod of 12 hours, which gives a lot of benefits, and also makes the flowering process sluggish.Land Preparation for Saffron Cultivation in IndiaBefore plowing or planting saffron seeds, make the soil brittle by plowing the field thoroughly. Before the final plowing, put 20 tonnes of cow dung and 90 kg of nitrogen along with 60 kg of phosphorus and potas per hectare in your field and plow it well. With this, your land will remain fertile and rough and the saffron crop will be good to a great extent. Fennel Seeds Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Description : Fennel seeds are part of the famous Chinese five spice powder that includes star anise, Szechuan peppercorns, cinnamon, and cloves. This mixed spice has a wonderfully balanced yet intense flavor, with warming notes.Soil and climate : Well drained loamy soil or black or sandy soil rich in organic matter is suitable for fennel cultivation.Climate : It comes up well in fairly mild with frost free climateSeed rate For direct sowing : 9 - 12 kg/ha. For transplanting : 3 - 4 kg/ha – Nursery area 100 sq.m. Spacing5 - 6 weeks old seedlings are transplanted at 60 x 30 cm spacing.Thinning In direct sown crop thin 4 – 5 weeks old seedlings to 25 – 30 cm spacing.Varieties : CO 1, UF 32 PF 35 Gujarat Fennel 1 Management  : Field preparation Prepare the main field to a fine tilth. Add FYM 10 t/ha before last ploughing. Form beds and channels    Pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin @ 1 kg a.i./ha IrrigationFirst irrigation should be given immediately after sowing, second on the third day and subsequent irrigations at 7 - 10 days intervals. Sona Masoori Rice Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Basmati Rice Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Description : “Basmati” is long grain aromatic rice grown for many centuries in the specific geographical area, at the Himalayan foot hills of Indian sub-continent, blessed with characteristics extra- long slender grains that elongate at least twice of their original size with a characteristics soft and fluffy texture upon cooking, delicious taste, superior aroma and distinct flavor, Basmati rice is unique among other aromatic long grain rice varieties.Agro- climatic conditions of the specific geographical area as well as method of harvesting, processing and aging attribute these characteristic features to Basmati rice. Owning to its unique characteristics the “ scented Pearl” lends a touch of class that can transform even the most ordinary meal into a gourmet’s delight.Varieties : Traditional Rice Pusa Rice 1121 Basamati Rice 1401 Basmati Rice 1509 Basmati Rice Suganda Basmati Rice Sharbati Basmati Rice Climate :Optimum climatic requirements for rice for its normal growth include 20 - 35oC temperature throughout the crop duration, clear sky during day, low night temperatures for reduced maintenance respiration and equitable distribution of rainfall.Management  :Organic Production of Basmati Rice Rice (Oryza sativa), one of the three most important food crops in the world, forms the staple diet of 2.7 billion people. It occupies 150 million ha, producing 573 million tonnes of paddy with average productivity of 3.83 t / ha. In India rice accounts for 40% of Food Grain Production. Basmati rice is known as king of rice and is priced for its characteristic long-grain, subtle aroma and delicious taste. It is one of the major agricultural commodities the country.Irrigation/CultivationProper water management facilitates good tillering and better nitrogen uptake. Uniform levelling of field and proper drainage are most essential for effective water management. It is ideal to maintain 2-5 cm of water throughout the growing season. Almond Kernels Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Description : The almond  is a species of tree native to Iran and surrounding countries but widely cultivated elsewhere. The almond is also the name of the edible and widely cultivated seed of this tree. Within the genus Prunus, it is classified with the peach in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by corrugations on the shell surrounding the seed.The fruit of the almond is a drupe, consisting of an outer hull and a hard shell with the seed, which is not a true nut, inside. Shelling almonds refers to removing the shell to reveal the seed. Almonds are sold shelled or unshelled. Blanched almonds are shelled almonds that have been treated with hot water to soften the seedcoat, which is then removed to reveal the white embryo.Sustainability:Almond production in California is concentrated mainly in the Central Valley, where the mild climate, rich soil, abundant sunshine and water supply make for ideal growing conditions. Due to the persistent droughts in California in the early 21st century, it became more difficult to raise almonds in a sustainable manner. The issue is complex because of the high amount of water needed to produce almonds: a single almond requires roughly 1.1 US gallons (0.92 imperial gallons; 4.2 litres) of water to grow properly. However, cow's milk requires more water to produce than almond milk, and in 2014, California produced 42.3 billion pounds of cow's milk, while in the same year California produced only 2.14 billion pounds of almondsHealth:Almonds are included as a good source of protein among recommended healthy foods by the US Department of Agriculture. A 2016 review of clinical research indicated that regular consumption of almonds may reduce the risk of heart disease by lowering blood levels of LDL cholesterol.Potential allergy:Almonds may cause allergy or intolerance. Cross-reactivity is common with peach allergens (lipid transfer proteins) and tree nut allergens. Symptoms range from local signs and symptoms  to systemic signs and symptoms including anaphylaxis (e.g., urticaria, angioedema, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms).Cultural aspects : The almond is highly revered in some cultures. The tree originated in the Middle East, and is mentioned numerous times in the Bible. In the Hebrew Bible, the almond was a symbol of watchfulness and promise due to its early flowering. In the Bible the almond is mentioned ten times, beginning with Book of Genesis 43:11, where it is described as "among the best of fruits". In Numbers 17 Levi is chosen from the other tribes of Israel by Aaron's rod, which brought forth almond flowers. According to tradition, the rod of Aaron bore sweet almonds on one side and bitter on the other; if the Israelites followed the Lord, the sweet almonds would be ripe and edible, but if they were to forsake the path of the Lord, the bitter almonds would predominate. The almond blossom supplied a model for the menorah which stood in the Holy Temple, "Three cups, shaped like almond blossoms, were on one branch, with a knob and a flower; and three cups, shaped like almond blossoms, were on the other...on the candlestick itself were four cups, shaped like almond blossoms, with its knobs and flowers" . Similarly, Christian symbolism often uses almond branches as a symbol of the Virgin Birth of Jesus; paintings and icons often include almond-shaped haloes encircling the Christ Child and as a symbol of Mary. The word "Luz", which appears in Genesis 30:37, sometimes translated as "hazel", may actually be derived from the Aramaic name for almond (Luz), and is translated as such in some Bible versions such as the NIV. The Arabic name for almond is ??? "lauz" or "l?z". In some parts of the Levant and North Africa it is pronounced "loz", which is very close to its Aramaic origin.Varieties : Mollar Macron. Ferraduel. Ferragnès Nonpareil Texas Ne plus ultra Commercial varieties of ALMONDSBelow are some of the commercial varieties of Almond cultivated in India. Non Pareil, Claifornia paper Shell, Merced, IXL, Shalimar, Makhdoom, Waris, Pranyaj, Other high yielding cultivars are Ne Plus Ultra, Primorskij, Peerless, Carmel, Thompson, Price, Butter, Monterey, Ruby, Fritz, Sonora, Padre and Le Grand.Season lmond requires climate having slightly hot summer temperature ranging from 30C to 35C and cool winters for plant growth and kernel filling. Unopened blossoms shall withstand cold up to – 2.2C, but blossoms at petal fall stage are damaged at 0.50 C to – 1.1 C. The blossoms can withstand temperature from -2.2 C to -3.3 C for a short time but if low temperature continuous for long hours they get damaged easily.Management At Almond planting time, head back the tree to 1 meter above the ground level. First dormant pruning Primary scaffold branches are retained along with few temporary branches below trunk, removing only those branches which compete strongly with primary scaffolds and the Almond tree is trained to a shape of modifies leader system. 1 year old wood is pruned every year in December to January when Almond tree is completely dormant and they produce most of the fruit on short spurs which stay fruitful for about five years. Therefore, pruning should be done in such a manner that 1-5 of the fruiting wood is replaced every year. Prune in such a way that new wood with new spur growth is constantly replacing spur that are no longer fruitful or useful. To meet or achieve this, only prune or remove older tree branches that is 1.2 cm to 3.7 cm in diameter. Thin out very little of the smaller wood, except to remove unwanted suckers or water sprouts. The success of pruning in almond plantation can be judged in part by the length of new shoots over the entire tree every year, if other factors are not impacting growth.Inter cropping in almond farming: – During the almond orchard pre-bearing stage, inter cultivation with several suitable crops are recommended for some extra income through sustainable utilization of inter spaces. The best inter crops in almond farming are like saffron, pea, pulses, carrot, seed production of turnip, knoll khol, mustard and bulb production of onion and garlic, and aromatic plants and medicinal plants like lave dine, lavender. Besides getting some extra income, the growing of legumes like pulses and pea will increase the soil fertility, turnips seed production and mustard augmenting to pollination by attracting bees, and growing some medicinal and aromatic trees like garlic, lavender, lave dine etc are acting as repellent to ant pests, insects and diseases.Irrigation/CultivationThe critical stages of almond plantation which are most sensitive to water shortages are flowering (Feb to March) and fruit development (April-May-June).Therefore, watering must be provided during these stages for getting higher yield of quality almond nuts. The drip irrigation watering method found very efficient in almond farming, try to adopt drip irrigation for better water management. Cashew Nuts Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Description : The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew seed and the cashew apple. The tree can grow as high as 14 m (46 ft), but the dwarf cashew, growing up to 6 m (20 ft), has proven more profitable, with earlier maturity and greater yields. The cashew seed is often considered a nut in the culinary sense; this cashew nut is eaten on its own, used in recipes, or processed into cashew cheese or cashew butter. Like the tree, the nut is often simply called a cashew. The species is native to Central America, the Caribbean Islands, and northern South America, including northeastern Brazil. Portuguese colonists in Brazil began exporting cashew nuts as early as the 1550s. In 2017, Vietnam, India, and Ivory Coast were the major producers. The shell of the cashew seed yields derivatives that can be used in many applications including lubricants, waterproofing, paints, and, starting in World War II, arms production.The cashew apple is a light reddish to yellow fruit, whose pulp can be processed into a sweet, astringent fruit drink or distilled into liquor. Technical Requirements of Cashew Cultivation :Soil: The general notion is that "cashew is very modest in its soil requirements and can adapt itself to varying soil conditions without impairing productivity". While Cashew can be grown in poor soils, its performance would be much better on good soils. The best soils for cashew are deep and well-drained sandy loams without a hard pan. Cashew also thrives on pure sandy soils, although mineral deficiencies are more likely to occur. Water stagnation and flooding are not congenial for cashew. Heavy clay soils with poor drainage and soils with pH more than 8.0 are not suitable for cashew cultivation. Excessive alkaline and saline soils also do not support its growth. Red sandy loam, lateritic soils and coastal sands with slightly acidic pH are best for cashew.Climate :Cashew is a tropical plant and can thrive even at high temperatures. Young plants are sensitive to frost. The distribution of cashew is restricted to altitudes upto 700 m above mean sea level where the temperature does not fall below 20°C for prolonged period. Areas where the temperatures range from 20 to 30°C with an annual precipitation of 1000 - 2000 mm are ideal for cashew growing. However, temperatures above 36°C between the flowering and fruiting period could adversely affect the fruit setting and retention. Heavy rainfall, evenly distributed throughout the year is not favourable though the trees may grow and sometimes set fruit. Cashew needs a climate with a well-defined dry season of at least four months to produce the best yields. Coincidence of excessive rainfall and high relative humidity with flowering may result in flower/fruit drop and heavy incidence of fungal diseases.Preparation of Land  :The land should be ploughed thoroughly and levelled in case of agricultural lands. In case of forestlands, the jungle should be cleared well in advance and the debris burnt. After clearing the jungles, land is to be terraced or bunds constructed on sloppy land. In order to ensure better moisture conservation, soil trenches are dug across the contours. The cost of land preparation will vary depending upon the type and method of soil working. Nowadays, use of JCB for soil working is most popular; hence a provision for use of soil working is made in the model. The land preparation work should be completed prior to the onset of monsoon season i.e. during May – June.Varieties : ANDHRA PRADESH. BPP-1. This is a hybrid (H2/11) developed from the cross between Tree No. ... TAMIL NADU. VRI-1 (M 10/4) ... ORISSA. Bhubaneswar-1. ... WEST BENGAL. Jhargram-1. ... MAHARASHTRA. Vengurla-1. ... GOA. Goa-1 (Balli-2) ... KERALA. BLA 39-4 (Madakkathara-1) ... KARNATAKA. Ullal-1. Season June – December is optimum for cultivation.Management Requirement of plantsAbout 200 plants/ha can be planted.Preparation of fieldPits of 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm size are dug and filled up with a mixture of soil + 10 kg FYM + one kg neem cakeSpacingA spacing of 7 m either way is adoptedHigh Density PlantingSpacing of 5 x 4 m accommodating 500 plants per hectare is recommended prune the interlocking branches during the July-August to maintain the frameIrrigation/CultivationThe plant starts yielding 3rd year onwards. The peak picking months are March and May. Good nuts are grey green, smooth and well filled. After picking, the nuts are separated from the apple and dried in the sun for two to three days to bring down the moisture content to 10 to 12 %. Properly dried nuts are packed in alkathene bags. This will keep for 6 months. Fresh Carrot Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Description : The carrot is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist. They are a domesticated form of the wild carrot, Daucus carota, native to Europe and Southwestern Asia. The plant probably originated in Persia and was originally cultivated for its leaves and seeds.Varieties : Hills Ooty-1 Early Nantes and New Korda are suitable for cultivation in hilly areas. SeasonHillsCarrot can be grown throughout the year at an elevation above 1500 metres with assured irrigation. At elevations between 1000 – 1500 metres, it can be grown during July – February.PlainsPlanting can be done during August.Management After cultivationSpray Fluchloralin 1 lit a.i./ha immediately after sowing the seeds to control weeds or the first weeding to be done on 15th day of sowing.  Thinning and earthing up should be given on 30th day.Splitting of roots is a physiological disorder which is usually seen when there is a sudden increase in soil moisture after prolonged drought. Forking is another phenomenon where in the hard soil does not allow the straight growth of tap root which results in formation of forked root. Forked roots and split roots fetch poor price in market. Keeping the soil moisture at optimum condition will help to keep the soil also loose thereby help to avoid splits and forked roots.Plant protectionCarrot is not much affected by pests.NematodeApplication of neem cake @ 1 ton/ha at planting to control root knot nematode, Meloidogyne spp.DiseasesLeaf spotLeaf spot can be controlled by spraying Mancozeb at 2 g/lit.Irrigation/CultivationIrrigationIrrigation is done once in five days.After cultivationSpray Fluchloralin 1 lit a.i./ha immediately after sowing the seeds to control weeds or the first weeding to be done on 15th day of sowing.  Thinning and earthing up should be given on 30th day.Splitting of roots is a physiological disorder which is usually seen when there is a sudden increase in soil moisture after prolonged drought. Forking is another phenomenon. Fresh Potato Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Description : The potato is a root vegetable native to the Americas, a starchy tuber of the plant Solanum tuberosum, and the plant itself, a perennial in the family Solanaceae.Wild potato species, originating in modern-day Peru, can be found throughout the Americas, from the United States to southern Chile.The potato was originally believed to have been domesticated by indigenous peoples of the Americas independently in multiple locations,but later genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species traced a single origin for potatoes. In the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia, from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex, potatoes were domesticated approximately 7,000–10,000 years ago. In the Andes region of South America, where the species is indigenous, some close relatives of the potato are cultivated.Potatoes were introduced to Europe from the Americas in the second half of the 16th century by the Spanish. Today they are a staple food in many parts of the world and an integral part of much of the world's food supply. As of 2014, potatoes were the world's fourth-largest food crop after maize (corn), wheat, and rice.SoilThe soil should be friable, porous and well drained. The optimum soil pH range is 4.8 to 5.4. It prefers a cool weather. Potato is mostly grown as a rainfed crop in regions receiving a rainfall of 1200 – 2000 mm per annum.Seed treatmentUse Carbon disulphide 30 g/100 kg of seeds for breaking the dormancy and inducing sprouting of tubers.True potato seedThe cost of seed tubers and spread of virus disease can be greatly minimized by using ‘true potato seeds’. The hybrids developed by Central Potato Research Institute viz., HPS 1/13, HPS 11/13 and HPS 24/111 are suitable for true potato seed production. The seeds are raised in nursery beds like other vegetables and seedlings are transplanted 30 days after sowing. For raising one hectare of crop, a quantity of 100 g seed is required.Preparation of fieldPrepare the land to fine tilth.  In hills provide an inward slope in the terraces. Provide drainage channel along the inner edge of the terrace. Form ridges and furrows with a spacing of 45 cm between ridges either by hand hoe or ridger.PlantingUse disease free, well spouted tubers weighing 40 – 50 grams for planting. Plant the tubers at 20 cm apart.Application of fertilizersApply 15 t/ha of FYM and 2 kg each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacterium as basal and 120 kg N, 240 kg P and 120 kg K/ha in two splits; half as basal and the balance for top dressing on 30 days after sowing.  Apply Magnesium sulphate at 60 kg/ha as basal dose.Varieties : Kufri Jyoti Kufri Muthu Kufri Swarna Kufri Thangam Kufri Malar Kufri Soga Kufri Giriraj SeasonPlainsPlanting is done during October – November in plains.Seed rateAbout 3000 – 3500 kg/ha of seeds is required.PlainsPlanting can be done during August.Management Plant protectionPestsNematodesAvoid growing potato year after year in the same field.  Follow rotation with vegetables and green manure. Application of Carbofuran 3 G (1.0 kg a.i.) 33 kg/ha in furrows while seeding. For cyst nematode resistant variety Kufri Swarna, half dose of the above nematicide is enough.Biological control of nematodesApplication of Pseudomonas fluorescensIrrigationIrrigate the crop 10 days after planting. Subsequent irrigation should be given once in a week.After cultivationWeed controlThe critical period of weed-competition is upto 60 days and it is essential to keep the field weed-free during that period. Take up the first hoeing on 45th day without disturbing stolons. Second hoeing and earthing can be taken up at 60th day. Fresh Drumsticks Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Description : A drumstick is a type of percussion mallet used particularly for playing snare drum, drum kit and some other percussion instruments, and particularly for playing unpitched percussion. Specialized beaters used on some other percussion instruments, such as the metal beater or wand used with a triangle, and particularly beaters or mallets used with tuned percussion such as xylophone and timpani, are not normally referred to as drumsticks. Drumsticks generally have all of the following characteristics: They are normally supplied and used in pairs. They are held in the hands, most often one in each hand. They may be used to play at least some sort of drum (as well as other instruments). They are normally used only for unpitched percussion. Varieties : PKM 1 PKM 2 KKM 1 SeasonJuly – OctoberManagement High density planting and fertigation in moringa PKM 1 High density planting at 1.5 X 1.0 m spacing with two plants/hill and plant population 13,333 / ha along with the application of fertilizer dose of 135: 23 :45 g of NPK/pit (150%) through drip increases the yield of moringa. In this phosphorus should be applied basally as soil application. N and K can be applied in the form of urea and muriate of potash through drip. For PKM-2, the closest spacing of 1.2 x 1.2 m is ideal to obtain the highest yield of 138 t/ha. The pinching of main shoots on 80th day after sowing will also help register the highest yield of fruits. After cultivationGap filling may be done within a month. Pinch off the seedlings when they are about 75 cm in height to facilitate more branching. Short duration vegetables like Cowpea, Bhendi and Tomato can be grown as intercrop. For perennial moringa, medium pruning of shoots at 70 cm from the tip has to be followed to regulate flowering and obtain the highest yield of 37 kg/ tree.  Irrigation/CultivationIrrigationIrrigate before sowing and on the 3rd day after sowing and subsequently at 10 – 15 days interval according to soil type.Preparatory cultivation Dig pits of size 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm with a spacing of 2.0 - 2.5 m either way. Apply 15 kg of compost or FYM/pit after mixing with top soil. High density planting and fertigation in moringa PKM 1 High density planting at 1.5 X 1.0 m spacing with two pla Oil Seeds Agro Products Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530 BOPP Packaging Bags Packaging Bags Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0530